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Phasianidae


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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. All Malaysian and Indonesian names in the process of conversion into modernised spelling only. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Phasianidae species have long been sought for food and sport both by local peoples and by Europeans. The present wide array of names is derived almost entirely from a single suite of names published in the early 20th Century by Robinson. In addition to covering all species of the Phasianidae, similar-appearing species in the Turnicidae and Rallidae are also included within the range of meaning of some of these general names. (At this site, the original spellings have been modified to conform with modern usage.)

Robinson General Names

General Name Conventional English Equivalent Maximum Extent of Current Range of Meaning Current Narrow Meaning
puyuh 'quail' quails, partridges; buttonquails (Turnicidae) any quail or buttonquail
ayam 'chicken/fowl' domestic breeds of chickens/fowl, junglefowl, other domestic land fowl (guineafowl, turkeys); short-tailed gallopheasants;
waterhen, watercock, swamphen (last 3 all Rallidae);

larger shorebirds (snipe,dowitchers, etc. Scolopacidae); (also used to describe other large birds: woodpecker)
'domestic chicken/fowl' (Gallus gallus)
sang seruk 'tree-partridge/wood-partridge' Arborophila and Calloperdix partridges Arborophila and Calloperdix partridges
kuang ~ kuau 'pheasant' arguses, peacock-pheasants, gallopheasants (especially long-tailed species); other exotic pheasants 'argus' (Argusianus argus)
merak 'peafowl' peafowl, peacock-pheasants 'greenpeafowl' (Pavo muticus)

Puyuh (and its variants such as puyoh and kepuyuh) occur in both Malaysian and Indonesian. In addition to the shared name, Indonesian has an exact synonym, gemak which was borrowed from Javanese.

Ayam occurs in both languages. When used as a name for a familiar domestic bird, ayam typically does not occur with a preposed burung 'bird' and this usage is also extended to the perceived-similar wild species of Gallus and Lophura. None of the other genera of the Phasianidae are considered ayam, but the larger species in the Rallidae are popularly included. Ayam names for waterhen (Amaurornis), watercock (Gallicrex), and swamphen (Porphyrio) often do take burung. Popularly, ayam is extended also to the larger shorebirds, especially those such as snipe (Scolopax, Gallinago) and dowitchers (Limnodromus) which are hunted as game birds.

Sang seruk (written variously as sangseruk, sangserok, sangserut, and sengsurit) is an old name for a single partridge species. However, it may be impossible to determine which one from among the group of species that currently share the name. Ornithological Malaysian uses sang seruk as the base for all Arborophila and Caloperdix species names.

Kuang ~ kuau is a rendition of the distinctive cry of the great argus (Argusianus argus) which is more often heard than seen. This onomatopoeic name is historically related to the Thai name หว้า wâa. Both kuang and kuau variants are used in both countries and popular usage is not split along language lines.

Merak is originally a species name for the native green peafowl (Pavo muticus). It was anciently applied equally to an early-imported exotic, the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Merak used in alternate names for the peacock-pheasants reflect their resemblances to peafowl, especially their erected tails covered with ocelli.

Older Species-Names

A large number of bird names in Malaysian and Indonesian are onomatopoeic, including most of the older Phasianidae names here. Many of the SE Asian Phasianidae are especially noted for having distinctive, unusual, and very un-birdlike vocalizations. For example, there are names indicating barking (gonggong), creaking (cicit), and whistling in the manner of a person (siul).

Most of the partridges have distinctive whistling calls, but siul (also mersiul) 'whistler' became an early ornithological species-name for Rollulus roulroul alone. An effort was made (24, 25) to insert siul into the names for most birds called 'partridges' in English. However, in more recent phasianid names siul is once again restricted to Rollulus roulroul.

Ornithological naming

Malaysian

Form of Name Literal Meaning Ornithological Malaysian
puyuh
'quail' Coturnix*, Turnix (Turnicidae)
siul
'whistler' ( → 'partridge') RollulusRhizotheraMelanoperdixArborophilaBambusicola*
sang seruk 'tree-partridge, wood-partridge' ArborophilaCaloperdix
ayam
'domestic fowl/chicken' GallusLophura
ayam pegar
'crested-fireback domestic fowl/chicken' Lophura
kuang
'argus' ( → 'pheasant') ArgusianusRheinardia, PolyplectronTragopan*, Lophura, Phasianus*, Syrmaticus*
kuang raya 'great argus' ArgusianusRheinardia
merak 'greenpeafowl' PavoPolyplectron
merak pongsu
'ant/termite-mound greenpeafowl' Polyplectron

*extralimital

Indonesian

Form of Name Literal Meaning Ornithological Indonesian
puyuh
'quail' RhizotheraMelanoperdix, CoturnixCaloperdixRollulus
puyuh gonggong 'barking-quail'
Arborophila
ayam hutan
'forest domestic fowl/chicken' Gallus
sempidan
'pheasant'
Lophura*
kuau
'argus' Argusianus
kuau kerdil
'dwarf-argus'
Polyplectron*
merak
'greenpeafowl' Pavo

*extralimital

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
rollulINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MALAY
OTHER S. E. ASIAN
EAST ASIAN
Rollulus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Rollulus roulroul
link to photo
Roulroul
Crested partridge
Burung Siul
'whistler (bird)' (old, 26, 28)
Burung Mersiul
'whistler (bird)' (old)
Burung Siul Berjambul
'crested whistler (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Puyuh Mahkota
'crowned quail (bird)'
Burung Cicit
'cheeper (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Ciap-ciap
'cheeper bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Siatong 'siatong (bird)' (old)
Burung Sengayan
'sengayan (bird)'
Burung Puyuh Sengayan
'sengayan quail (bird)'
ไก่จุก
kày cùk
'topknot fowl'
Gà gô mào
'crested partridge' (from Cites list on Internet)
Gà gô vương miện đỏ
'red-faced king partridge'
冕鹧鸪
(冕鷓鴣)
miǎn zhègū
'hooded partridge'
カンムリシャコ
(冠鷓鴣)
kanmuri shako
'crested partridge'
Arborophila
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Arborophila campbelli
link to photo
Campbell's hill partridge
Malayan partridge
Burung Sang Seruk
'hillpartridge (bird)' (old) (Shared with Arborophila charltonii and Caloperdix oculeus)
Burung Sang Seruk Gunung
'mountain hillpartridge (bird)' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28) (in 24 described as Arborophila brunneopectus; now split with name shared)
  Arborophila East Asianis:
Burung Puyuh Gonggong Biasa
'common barking-quail (bird)' (29)
นกกระทาดงอกเทา
nók krà-tʰaa-doŋ òk-tʰaw
'grey-breasted jungle-partridge (bird)'
  Arborophila East Asianis:
灰胸山鹧鸪
(灰胸山鷓鴣)
huī-xiōng shān-zhègū
'grey-breasted mountain-partridge' (4)
Arborophila East Asianis:
苏门答腊山鹧鸪
(蘇門答臘山鷓鴣)
sūméndālà shān-zhègū
'Sumatra mountain-partridge' (5)
Arborophila East Asianis:
苏门山鹧鸪
(蘇門山鷓鴣)
sūmén shān-zhègū
'Sumatra mountain-partridge' (alt in 5)
Arborophila East Asianis:
スマトラミヤマテッケイ
(スマトラ深山竹鶏)
sumatora mi-yama tekkei
'Sumatra deep-mountain bamboo-fowl/chicken'

Arborophila charltonii
Arborophila charltoni
link to photo
Scaly-breasted Partridge
Chestnut-necklaced hill partridge
Chestnut-necklaced partridge
Burung Sang Seruk
'hillpartridge (bird)' (old) (conflicts with Arborophila campbelli and Caloperdix oculeus)
Burung Sang Seruk Rimba
'jungle hillpartridge (bird)' (26, 28) (conflicts with Caloperdix oculeus)
Burung Siul Onak
'briar whistler (bird)' (24, 25)
  Burung Puyuh-gonggong Kalung
'necklaced barking-quail (bird)' (onomat.)
นกกระทาดงปักษ์ใต้
nók krà-tʰaa-doŋ pàk-tây
'southern region (=South Thailand) jungle-partridge (bird)'
Arborophila chloropus:
นกกระทาดงแข้งเขียว
nók krà-tʰaa-doŋ kʰâaeŋ-kʰĭaw
'green-shinned jungle-partridge (bird)'
Arborophila chloropus (12), Arborophila charltonii (13):
Gà so ngực gụ
'ebony-breasted hillpartridge' ( = 'fowl') (12, 13)
栗胸山鹧鸪
(栗胸山鷓鴣)
lì-xiōng shān-zhègū
'chestnut-breasted mountain-partridge'
Arborophila chloropus:
绿脚山鹧鸪
(綠腳山鷓鴣)
lǜ-jiǎo shān-zhègū
'green-footed mountain-partridge'
クリチャミヤマテッケイ
(栗茶深山竹鶏)
kuri-cha mi-yama tekkei
'chestnut-brown deep-mountain bamboo-fowl/chicken'
Arborophila chloropus:
ミドリアシミヤマテッケイ
(緑足深山竹鶏)
midori ashi mi-yama tekkei
'green-legged deep-mountain bamboo-fowl/chicken'
Rhizothera
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Rhizothera longirostris Long-billed partridge
Long-billed wood partridge
Burung Selanting
'longbilledpartridge (bird)' (old, 26, 28)
Burung Siul Selanting
'longbilledpartridge whistler (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Petak
'checkered bird' (old)
Burung Puyuh Siul-selanting
'longbilledpartridge-whistler-quail (bird)'
ไก่นวล
kày nuan
'pale fowl'
Gà gô rừng mỏ dài
'long-billed forest partridge' (from Cites list on Internet)
长嘴山鹑
(長嘴山鶉)
cháng-zǔi shān-chún
'long-billed mountain-quail'
ハシナガシャコ
(嘴長鷓鴣)
hashi-naga shako
'long-billed partridge'
Melanoperdix
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Melanoperdix nigra
link to photo
Black partridge
Black wood partridge
Burung Bertam
'bertam (bird)' (old, 26, 28)
Burung Siul Bertam
'bertam whistler (bird)' (24, 25)
  Burung Puyuh Hitam
'black quail (bird)'
  Gà gô đen
'black partridge' (from Cites list on Internet)
黑鹑
(黑鶉)
hēi-chún
'black quail'
クマシャコ
(熊鷓鴣)

kuma shako
'bear partridge'
Caloperdix
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Caloperdix oculeus
Caloperdix oculea
Ferruginous partridge Burung Sang Seruk
'hillpartridge (bird)' (old, 26) (conflicts with Arborophila campbelli and Arborophila charltonii)
Burung Sang Seruk Perang
'auburn hillpartridge (bird)' (28)
Burung Sang Seruk Rimba
'jungle hillpartridge (bird)' (old, 24, 25) (conflicts with Arborophila charltonii)
  Burung Puyuh Tarun-tarun
'tarun-tarun quail (bird)'
นกกระทาสองเดือย
nók krà-tʰaa sŏaaŋ-deuay
'two-spurred partridge (bird)'
  锈红林鹧鸪
(銹紅林鷓鴣)
xiū-hóng lín-zhègū
'rusty-red forest-partridge'
アカチャシャコ
(赤茶鷓鴣)
aka-cha shako
'reddish-brown partridge'
 
PHASIANINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MALAY
OTHER S. E. ASIAN
EAST ASIAN
PAVONINI
Pavo
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Pavo muticus
link to photo
Green peafowl Burung Merak Hijau
'green greenpeafowl (bird)' (24a, 25, 28)
Burung Merak
'greenpeafowl (bird)' (old, 24, 26)
  Burung Merak Hijau
'green greenpeafowl (bird)' (29, 30)
นกยูง
nók yuuŋ
'peafowl bird'
Công
'peafowl' (12, 13, 34)
or
Cuông
'peafowl' (12, 34)
绿孔雀
(綠孔雀)
lǜ kǒng-què
'green peafowl'
クジャク
(孔雀)
kujaku
'peafowl' (from Chinese)
Argusianus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Argusianus argus Great argus Burung Kuang Raya
'great-argus (bird)' (onomat.) (24, 25, 26, 28)
or
Burung Kuang
'argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old, alt in 26, 28)
Burung Kuau
'argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Raya
'great-argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Besar
'large argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Rimba
'jungle argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Keruai
'argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Raja
'king-argus (bird)' (onomat.)
นกหว้า
nók wâa
'argus (bird)' (onomat.)
  大眼斑雉
(大眼斑雉)
dà yǎn-bān zhì
'large eye-spotted pheasant'
Other:
青鸾
(青鸞)
qīng-luán
'green/blue luán'
(Wikipedia)
百眼雉鸡
(百眼雉雞)
bǎi-yǎn zhì-jī
'hundred-eyed pheasant-fowl/chicken' (Wikipedia)
セイラン
(青鸞)
seiran
'blue/green ran'
Rheinardia
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Rheinardia ocellata
link to photolink to photo
Crested argus Burung Kuang Raya Gunung
'mountain great-argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old, 24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Kuang Gunung
'mountain argus (bird)' (onomat.) (24a)
Burung Kuang Kepala Putih
'white-headed argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Kepala Putih
'white-headed argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Raya Gunung
'mountain great-argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
    Trĩ sao
'starred pheasant' (12, 13, 34)
冠眼斑雉
(冠眼斑雉)
guān yǎn-bān zhì
'crested eye-spotted pheasant' (4)
风头眼斑雉
(鳳頭眼斑雉)
fèngtóu yǎn-bān zhì
'phoenix-headed eye-spotted pheasant' (5)
Other:
冠鸾
(冠鸞)
guàn-luán
'crested luán'
(Wikipedia)
冠羽雉
(冠羽雉)
guàn-yǔ-zhì
'crested feathered pheasant' (Wikipedia)
カンムリセイラン
(冠青鸞)
kanmuri seiran
'crested blue/green ran'
POLYPLECTRONINI
Polyplectron
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Polyplectron malacense Malayan Peacock Pheasant
Malaysian Peacock-Pheasant
Malayan Peacock-Pheasant
Burung Kuang Pongsu
'ant/termite-hill argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old, 25)
Burung Merak Pongsu
'ant/termite-hill peafowl (bird)' (old, 24, 26, alt in 28)
Burung Merak Pongsu Rimba
'jungle ant/termite-hill peafowl (bird)' (28)
Burung Kuang Cermin
'mirror argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old) (conflicts with Polyplectron inopinatum)
Burung Kuang Bulan
'moon argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuang Ranggas
'brushwood argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuang Ranting
'twig (=small) argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Merak Pungsu
'ant/termite-hill peafowl (bird)'
Burung Merak-kerdil
'dwarf-peafowl (bird)'
Burung Kuau Melayu
'Malayan argus (bird)' (onomat.)
Burung Kuau-kerdil
'dwarf-argus (bird)' (onomat.)
Burung Kuau-kerdil Melayu
'Malayan dwarf-argus (bird)' (onomat.)
›Taxonomy‹
Burung Kuau Cermin
'mirror argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old) (conflicts with Polyplectron inopinatum)
Burung Kuang Denak
'bantam argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Tatera
'[a kind of pheasant] (bird)' (old) (conflicts with Lophura ignita)
Burung Susur Bertam
'bertam edge (bird)' (old) (conflicts with Lophura ignita)

 

นกแว่นสีน้ำตาล
nók wâeen sĭi-nám-taan
'brown spectacles-bird'
  凤冠孔雀雉
(鳳冠孔雀雉)
fèng-guàn kǒng-què zhì
'phoenix-crested peafowl-pheasant'
マレーエボシコクジャク
(マレー烏帽子孔雀)
marē eboshi ko kujaku
'Malay eboshi small peafowl' (eboshi is an ancient Japanese court hat)
Polyplectron inopinatum Mountain Peacock Pheasant
Mountain peacock-pheasant
Burung Kuang Cermin
'mirror argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old, 24, 25, 26, alt in 28) (conflicts with Polyplectron malacense)
Burung Merak Pongsu Gunung
'mountain ant/termite-hill peafowl (bird)' (28)
Burung Kuau Cermin
'mirror argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old) (conflicts with Polyplectron malacense)
Burung Kuang Cermin Gunung
'mountain mirror-argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kuau Cermin Gunung
'mountain mirror-argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
      山孔雀雉
(山孔雀雉)
shān kǒng-què zhì
'mountain peafowl-pheasant' (4)
铜尾孔雀雉
(銅尾孔雀雉)
tóng-wěi kǒng-què zhì
'bronze-tailed peafowl-pheasant' (5) (Conflicts with P. chalcurum)
アカコクジャク
(赤子孔雀)
aka ko kujaku
'red small peafowl'
COTURNICINI
Synoicus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Synoicus chinensis
Coturnix chinensis
Excalfactoria chinensis
link to photo
Blue-breasted quail
or
King quail
Indian blue quail
Burung Pikau
'bluequail (bird)' (onomat.) (old, 24, 25, 26, 28)
  Burung Puyuh Batu
'rock quail (bird)'
Burung Puyuh Pepekoh
'bluequail quail (bird)' (onomat.) (pikau ~ pepekoh) (29)
นกคุ่มสี
nók kʰûm sĭi
'coloured quail (bird)'
Cay Trung Quốc
'Chinese coturnixquail' (12, 13, 34)
蓝胸鹑
(藍胸鶉)
lán-xiōng chún
'blue-breasted quail'
Taiwan:
(小鹌鹑)
小鵪鶉
xiǎo ānchun
'small quail'
ヒメウズラ
(姫鶉)
hime uzura
'princess quail'
GALLINI
Gallus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Gallus gallus
link to photo
Red junglefowl Ayam Hutan
'forest fowl/chicken' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28)
or
Ayam Beroga
'beroga fowl/chicken' (old, alt in 26, 28)
Ayam Alas
'forest fowl/chicken' (alas from Javanese)
Ayam Denak
'bantam fowl/chicken' ('short-legged bantam chicken', a domestic breed) (old)
Ayam-hutan Merah
'red forest-fowl/chicken' (29, 30)
ไก่ป่า
kày pàa
'forest (=wild) fowl'
Gà rừng
'forest fowl/chicken' (12, 13, 34)
原鸡
(原雞)
yuán-jī
'primitive fowl/chicken'
セキショクヤケイ
(赤色野鶏)
seki-shoku ya-kei
'red-coloured wild fowl/chicken'
PHASIANINI
Lophura
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Lophura erythrophthalma Crestless Fireback Burung Mata Merah
'red-eyed bird' (old, 24, 26, alt in 28) (conflicts with Porzana fusca (Rallidae)
Ayam Mata Merah
'red-eyed fowl/chicken'
(old, 25)
Ayam Pegar Mata Merah
'red-eyed crestedfireback fowl/chicken'
(28)
Burung Kuang Bertam
'bertam argus (bird)' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Sempidan Merah
'red pheasant (bird)'
ไก่ฟ้าหางสีน้ำตาล
kài-fáa hăaŋ-sĭi-nám-taan
'brown-tailed sky-fowl'
  棕尾火背鹇
(棕尾火背鷼)
zōng-wěi huǒ-bèi xián
'reddishbrown-fire-backed silverpheasant'
ウチワキジ
(団扇雉)
uchiwa-kiji
'fan pheasant'
Lophura ignita Crested Fireback Burung Pegar
'crestedfireback (bird)' (old)
Ayam Pegar
'crestedfireback fowl/chicken' (old, 24, 25, 26, alt in 28)
Ayam Pegar Mata Biru
'blue-eyed crestedfireback fowl/chicken' (28)
Burung Tatera
'[a kind of pheasant] (bird)' (old) (conflicts with Polyplectron malacense)
Burung Sempidan Biru
'blue pheasant (bird)'
ไก่ฟ้าหน้าเขียว
kày-fáa nâa-kʰĭaw
'green-faced sky-fowl'
  凤冠火背鹇
(鳳冠火背鷼)
fèng-guàn huǒ-bèi xián
'phoenix-crested fire-backed silverpheasant'
コシアカキジ
(腰赤雉)
koshi-aka kiji
'red-rumped pheasant'

ฟ้า fáa, usually 'sky, heavens, celestial, etc.', here has a special ornithological meaning of 'fancy, elegant, brightly coloured, etc.'

At the time these names were created they applied to the formerly broader interpretation of Polyplectron malacense. The Borneo Peacock-pheasant (Polyplectron malacense schleiermacheri) is now considered a full species Polyplectron schleiermacheri with a new Indonesian name: Kuau-kerdil Kalimantan 'Borneo dwarf-peacockpheasant'.

Selanting (written variously as selanting, saulanting, and lanting) is an old name for Rhizothera longirostris, but the etymology of the name remains unclear.

Chantaburi is a province in SE Thailand near Cambodia.

Sang seruk (sangseruk, sangserok, sangserut, or sengsurit) is an old name for a single partridge species, variously identified as Caloperdix oculeus, Arborophila charltonii, or Arborophila campbelli (the only three species in these genera in the W Malaysia-Singapore area). In ornithological Malaysian it has been common (but not universal) to use sang seruk in the names of all three species.

Most of the partridges have distinctive whistling calls, but siul (also mersiul) 'whistler' became an early ornithological species-name for Rollulus roulroul alone. An effort was made (24, 25) to insert siul into the names for most birds called 'partridges' in English. However, in more recent phasianid names siul is once again restricted to Rollulus roulroul.

Bertam palms (Eugeissona tristis) are economically useful, and the Malay name bertam has been borrowed into English. Bertam forms a dense thorny thicket which provides food and shelter for wildlife.

Beroga (written variously as beroga, biruga, borga, and burga) is used with ayam 'fowl/chicken' as an alternate name for 'junglefowl'.

Mata merah 'red-eyed' is an old descriptive name for crestless fireback pheasant and can occur either with burung or ayam.
Mata mera was accidentally transposed to merah mata in one old publication and the error has been recopied in (24) and elsewhere.

(28) has suggested Ayam Pegar 'crestedfireback fowl/chicken' as a genus-name for Lophura and accordingly has modified this old name by inserting pegar.

Kuang is an onomatopoetic rendition of the call of Argusianus argus and generally came to be used in the names of the arguses and peacock-pheasants.
In Malaysian only, kuang has been extended to include any pheasant and is now the usual Malaysian translation for English 'pheasant'.

Pegar (written variously as pegar or begar) is an old name for crested fireback pheasant and can occur either with burung or ayam. Ayam Pegar 'crestedfireback fowl/chicken' has recently been suggested (28) as a genus-name for Lophura.

This name was meant to be the Malaysian translation of English 'common pheasant'. Biasa 'common' was erroneously replaced by bayas 'palm species' in (24).

The 鸞 / 鸾 luán, Japanese 鸞 ran, is a mythical Chinese bird similar to the phoenix.

แว่น wâeen 'lens; glasses, spectacles' is also a numeral classifier for disk-shaped objects. Here it refers to the ocelli on the tails of peacock-pheasants rather than to the eyes on the head.

孔雀 kǒngquè is an ancient name that is only partly analysable. has many meanings, including 'hole', 'cave' (modern dialect), 'beautiful', and 'splendid', as well as being the surname of Confucius. Whatever the original meaning, here it is simply part of the bird's name. què originally meant 'sparrow' but is now used in the names of all kinds of small birds, notably finches. Its use in the name of such a large bird is anomalous from the point of view of modern usage.

Cay has been borrowed from French caille in order to ornithologically distinguish the phasianid quails (Cay) from the turnicid quails, which have been assigned the traditional quail name of Cun cút.

Mostly from Robinson (& Chasen) 1927-1939 v1-4; additions from Madoc 1947 (et.seq.), and Glenister 1951 (both mostly names copied from Robinson)

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981

Previously online version of: Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 - Non-passerines by Wells, David R., Academic Press, London 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (second edition) by Jeyarajasingham, Allen, Illustrations by Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012

A Field Guide to the Birds of Java and Bali (second edition) by MacKinnon, John, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta 1990

Burung Nusantara checklist of Birds of Indonesia

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009