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Turdidae
ツグミ科
tsugumi ka

鸫科
dōng kē

鶇科
dōng kē

지빠귀과
jippagwi-gwa

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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Species list may not be current. Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

The Japanese ornithological name for the thrushes in general is ツグミ tsugumi, written with the Chinese character . Unmodified, ツグミ tsugumi refers to the Dusky Thrush (Turdus eunomus). The name is possibly etymologically related to the verb つぐむ tsugumu (噤む or 鉗む) meaning 'to close the mouth'.

Use of the character to write ツグミ tsugumi is a Japanese innovation. In Chinese, originally occurred in the word 鶇鵛 dōng-jīng, referring to the Wryneck. It clearly belongs to that class of character that was pressed into service to write a Japanese word in the absence of suitable alternatives. The modern Chinese use of dōng for the thrushes is not historically based and came about under the influence of Japanese.

Japanese has several older words for thrush. シナイ shinai (shinai) in Classical Japanese referred to the larger thrushes. ヌエ () nue 'nue' is an old name for the White's Thrush that was also the name of a monster in mediaeval Japanese lore.

The modern ornithological names were fixed in the 19th century. Most species contain the word ツグミ tsugumi, but there are a number that have distinctive names:

1. Some names are based on the colours of body parts. These include:

シロハラ shiro-hara (白腹) 'white-belly' for the Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus).

アカハラ aka-hara (赤腹) 'red-belly' for the Brown-headed Thrush (Turdus chrysolaus) and the Grey-backed Thrush (Turdus hortulorum).

マミジロ (眉白) mami-jiro 'white-eyebrow' for the Siberian Thrush (Geokichla sibirica).

2. The Eyebrowed Thrush (Turdus obscurus) uses the old name シナイ shinai (shinai), which in combination is voiced as ジナイ -jinai.

3. The Eurasian Blackbird (Turdus merula), now split as the Eastern Blackbird (Turdus mandarinus), is known as the クロウタドリ (黒歌鳥) kuro uta-dori 'black song bird'.

4. One localised species, the Izu Islands Thrush (Turdus celaenops), uses the dialect name アカコッコ (赤鶇 or 赤こっこ) aka-kokko 'red kokko' .

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
TURDINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
JAPANESE
CHINESE
KOREAN
Zoothera
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Zoothera aurea White's Thrush
White's thrush
Golden mountain thrush
White's ground thrush

Grive dorée
Erddrossel
トラツグミ
(虎鶇)
tora tsugumi
'tiger thrush'
ヌエドリ
(鵼鳥)
nue-dori
'nue bird'
ヌエ
( ~ )
nue
'nue'
ヌエコドリ
(鵼子鳥)
nueko-dori
'nueko bird'
怀氏虎鸫
(懐氏虎鶇)
huái-shì hǔ-dōng
'Mr Huai's tiger-thrush' (36)
(白氏地鸫)
白氏地鶇
bái-shì dì-dōng
'Mr White's ground-thrush'
顿鸡
(頓雞)
dùn-jī
'pausing fowl/chicken' (?) meaning unclear (northern) (35)
画眉
(畫眉)
huà-méi
'paiinted eyebrow' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
大花麦鴓
(大花麥鴓)
dà-huā mài miè
'large-flower grain mie' See also Turdus pallidus
虎鸫
(虎鶇)
hǔ-dōng
'tiger thrush' (former Taiwan ornithologicall name for Zoothera dauma and Zoothera aurea)
虎斑山鸫
(虎斑山鶇)
hǔ-bān shān-dōng
'tiger-striped mountain-thrush'
호랑지빠귀
horang-jippagwi
'tiger-and-wolf thrush'
Zoothera major
link to photo
Amami thrush

Grive d'Amami
Amami-Erddrossel
オオトラツグミ
(大虎鶇)
ō tora tsugumi
'large tiger thrush'
  阿迈地鸫
(阿邁地鶇)
āmài dì-dōng
'Amai ground-thrush' (4)
     
Zoothera dauma
Turdus dauma
link to photolink to photo
Scaly thrush
White's thrush

Grive dorée
Erddrossel
Пестрый дрозд
コトラツグミ
(小虎鶇)
ko tora tsugumi
'small tiger thrush'
›Taxonomy‹
  虎斑地鸫
(虎斑地鶇)
hǔ-bān dì-dōng
'tiger-striped ground-thrush'
(虎斑地鸫)
虎斑地鶇
hǔ-bān dì-dōng
'tiger-striped ground-thrush'
虎鸫
(虎鶇)
hǔ-dōng
'tiger thrush' (former Taiwan ornithological name for Zoothera dauma and Zoothera aurea)
 
Zoothera terrestris Bonin thrush
Bonin Island ground thrush
Kittlitz's thrush

Grive des Bonin
Bonin-Erddrossel
オガサワラガビチョウ
(小笠原画眉鳥)
ogasawara gabi-chō
'Bonin painted-eyebrow-bird' (extinct)
  启利氏地鸫
(啓利氏地鶇)
qǐlì-shì dì-dōng
'Mr Qili's ground-thrush' (5)
     
Geokichla
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Geokichla sibirica
Zoothera sibirica
Turdus sibiricus
link to photolink to photo
Siberian thrush
Siberian ground thrush

Grive de Sibérie
Schieferdrossel
Сибирский дрозд
マミジロ
(眉白)
mami-jiro
'white-eyebrow'
マユシロ
(眉白)
mayu-shiro
'white-eyebrow'
白眉地鸫
(白眉地鶇)
bái-méi dì-dōng
'white- eyebrowed ground-thrush'
(白眉地鸫)
白眉地鶇
bái-méi dì-dōng
'white-eyebrowed ground-thrush'
白眉
(白眉)
bái-méi
'white-eyebrow' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
西比利亚陆鸫
(西比利亞陸鶇)
xībǐlìyà lù-dōng
'Siberian land thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
흰눈썹지빠귀
huin-nunsseop-jippagwi
'white-eyebrowed thrush'
Turdus
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Turdus viscivorus
link to photo
Mistle thrush
Mistletoe thrush

Grive draine
Misteldrossel
Деряба
ヤドリギツグミ
(宿木鶇)
yadori-gi tsugumi
'mistletoe thrush'
  槲鸫
(槲鶇)
hú-dōng
'mistletoe thrush'
     
Turdus philomelos
link to photo
Song thrush
European song thrush

Grive musicienne
Singdrossel
Певчий дрозд
ウタツグミ
(歌鶇)
uta-tsugumi
'song thrush'
  欧歌鸫
(歐歌鶇)
ōu gē-dōng
'European song thrush'
  歌鸫
(歌鶇)
gē-dōng
'song thrush'
 
Turdus iliacus
link to photo
Redwing

Grive mauvis
Rotdrossel
Белобровик
ワキアカツグミ
(脇赤鶇)
waki-aka tsugumi
'red-sided thrush'
  白眉歌鸫
(白眉歌鶇)
bái-méi gē-dōng
'white-eyebrowed song thrush'
     
Turdus mandarinus
link to photo
Eastern blackbird
Chinese Blackbird

Merle de Chine
Mandarinmsel
クロウタドリ
(黒歌鳥)
kuro uta-dori
'black song-bird'
ブラックバード
burakku-bādo
'blackbird' (English)
乌鸫
(烏鶇)
wū-dōng
'black thrush'
(黑鸫)
黑鶇
hēi-dōng
'black thrush'
百舌
(百舌)
bǎi-shé
'hundred tongues' (see Laniidae)
反舌
(反舌)
fǎn-shé
'counter tongue' (bird 'talks back')
chun
(chun)
wū-chūn
'dark chun'
乌鸟
(烏鳥)
wū-niǎo
'dark bird'
中国黑鸫
(中國黑鶇)
zhōngguó hēi-dōng
'Chinese black thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
黑鸟
(黑鳥)
hēi-niǎo
'black bird' (early ornithological) (35)
乌鸪
(烏鴣)
wū-gū
'dark gu'
대륙검은지빠귀
daeryuk-geomeun-jippagwi
'continental black thrush'
Turdus cardis
link to photolink to photo
Japanese thrush
Japanese grey thrush
Grey thrush

Merle du Japon
Scheckendrossel
Белобрюхий дрозд
クロツグミ
(黒鶇)
kuro-tsugumi
'black thrush'
  乌灰鸫
(烏灰鶇)
wū-huī dōng
'black grey thrush'
(乌灰鸫)
烏灰鶇
wū-huī dōng
'black grey thrush'
Taiwan formerly:
(灰鸫)
灰鶇
huī dōng
'grey thrush'
黑鸫
(黑鶇)
hēi dōng
'black thrush' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
Planesticus cardis cardis:
日本灰鸫
(日本灰鶇)
rìběn huī dōng
'Japanese grey thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
Planesticus cardis lateus:
中国灰鸫
(中國灰鶇)
zhōngguó huī dōng
'Chinese grey thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
검은지빠귀
geomeun-jippagwi
'black thrush'
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Turdus hortulorum
link to photo
Grey-backed thrush

Merle à dos gris
Gartendrossel
Сизый дрозд
カラアカハラ
(唐赤腹)
kara aka-hara
'Chinese red-belly'
  灰背鸫
(灰背鶇)
huī-bèi dōng
'grey-backed thrush'
(灰背鸫)
灰背鶇
huī-bèi dōng
'grey-backed thrush'
鹛鸹
(鶥鴰)
méi-guā
'eyebrow crow' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
金胸鸫
(金胸鶇)
jīn-xiōng dōng
'gold-breasted thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
or
灰背鸫
(灰背鶇)
huī-bèi dōng
'grey-backed thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
되지빠귀
doe-jippagwi
'doe thrush'
Turdus obscurus
link to photo
Eyebrowed thrush
Eye-browed thrush

Merle obscur
Weißbrauendrossel
Дрозд оливковый
マミチャジナイ
(眉茶shinai)
mami cha-jinai
'eyebrowed brown thrush₁'
  白眉鸫
(白眉鶇)
bái-méi dōng
'white-eyebrowed thrush'
(白眉鸫)
白眉鶇
bái-méi dōng
'white-eyebrowed thrush'
眉鸫
(眉鶇)
méi dōng
'eyebrowed thrush' (7)
(灰頭鶇)
灰头鸫
huī-tóu dōng
'grey-headed thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
흰눈썹붉은배지빠귀
huin-nunsseop-bulgeun-bae-jippagwi
'white-eyebrowed red-bellied thrush'
Turdus celaenops
link to photolink to photo
Izu islands thrush
Izu thrush
Seven islands thrush

Merle des Izu
Kurodadrossel
アカコッコ
(赤鶇 or 赤こっこ)
aka-kokko
'red kokko' (dialect)' (kokko can be written 1. 'thrush' in Chinese characters or 2. in hiragana)
  伊岛鸫
(伊島鶇)
yī-dǎo dōng
'Yi island thrush' (4)
七岛鸫
(七島鶇)
qī-dǎo dōng
'seven island thrush' (5)
     
Turdus chrysolaus
link to photolink to photo
Brown-headed thrush
Red-billed thrush
Rufous-breasted thrush
Brown thrush

Merle à flancs roux
Rotkopfdrossel
Золотистый дрозд
アカハラ
(赤腹)
aka-hara
'red-belly'
  赤胸鸫
(赤胸鶇)
chì-xiōng dōng
'red-breasted thrush'
(赤腹鸫)
赤腹鶇
chì-fù dōng
'red-bellied thrush'
红腹鸫
(紅腹鶇)
hóng-fù dōng
'red-bellied thrush' (7)
赤腹鸫
(赤腹鶇)
chì-fù dōng
'red-bellied thrush'(35, from Zool. Nomen)
日本褐色鸫
(日本褐色鶇)
rìběn hè-sè dōng
'Japanese rown thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
붉은배지빠귀
bulgeun-bae-jippagwi
'red-bellied thrush'
Turdus pallidus
link to photo
Pale thrush

Merle pâle
Fahldrossel
Бледный дрозд
シロハラ
(白腹)
shiro-hara
'white-belly'
  白腹鸫
(白腹鶇)
bái-fù dōng
'white-bellied thrush'
(白腹鸫)
白腹鶇
bái-fù dōng
'white-bellied thrush'
白眉鸫
(白眉鶇)
bái-méi dōng
'white-eyebrowed thrush'
白眉白腹鸫
(白眉白腹鶇)
bái-méi bái-fù dōng
'white-eyebrowed white-bellied thrush'
灰头鸫
(灰頭鶇)
huī-tóu dōng
'grey-headed thrush'
浅色鸫
(淺色鶇)
qián-sè dōng
'light-coloured thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
灰头穿草鸡
(灰頭穿草雞)
huī-tóu chuān-cǎo-jī
'grey-headed through-grass fowl/chicken' (See T. naumanni)
银锭
(銀錠)
yín-dìng
'silver ingot'
白眉灰麦鴓
(白眉灰麥鴓)
bái-méi huī mài miè
'white-eyebrowed grey grain mie' (鴓 = warbler, see Phylloscopus coronatus, Anthus hodgsoni, and Zoothera aurea)
흰배지빠귀
huin-bae-jippagwi
'white-bellied thrush'
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Turdus pilaris
link to photo
Fieldfare

Grive litorne
Wacholderdrossel
Рябинник
ノハラツグミ
(野原鶇)
no-hara tsugumi
'field thrush'
  田鸫
(田鶇)
tián dōng
'paddy thrush'
     
Turdus naumanni
link to photolink to photo
Naumann's thrush

Grive de Naumann
Naumann-Drossel
Дрозд Науманна
ハチジョウツグミ
(八丈鶇)
hachi-jō tsugumi
'Hachijō thrush'
  红尾鸫
(紅尾鶇)
hóng-wěi dōng
'red-tailed thrush' (2)
斑鸫
(斑鶇)
bān-dōng
'striped thrush' (1, 3, 4, 5)
(红尾鸫)
紅尾鶇
hóng-wěi dōng
'red-tailed thrush'
八丈鸫
(八丈鶇)
bā-zhàng dōng
'Hachi-jo thrush' (from Japanese)
赤尾鸫
(赤尾鶇)
chì-wěi dōng
'red-tailed thrush' (35, from Zool. Nomen)
穿草鸡
(穿草雞)
chuān-cǎo-jī
'pass through grass fowl/chicken' (northern) (35)
北画眉
(北畫眉)
běi huà-méi
'northern painted-eyebrown (=hwamei)' (northern) (35)
红尾鸫
(紅尾雞)
hóng-wěi dōng
'red-tailed thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
노랑지빠귀
norang-jippagwi
'yellow thrush'
Turdus eunomus
›Taxonomy‹
link to photo
Dusky thrush

Grive à ailes rousses
Rostflügeldrossel
Бурый дрозд
ツグミ
()
tsugumi
'thrush'
シナイ
(shinai)
shinai 'thrush₁' (old word for thrush)
斑鸫
(斑鶇)
bān-dōng
'striped thrush' (2)
(斑点鸫)
斑點鶇
bān-diǎn dōng
'stripe-dotted thrush'
穿草鸡
(穿草雞)
chuān-cǎo-jī
'pass through grass fowl/chicken' (31)
窜儿鸡
(竄兒雞)
cuànr-jī
'hiding / slinking away fowl' (meaning unclear)
斑点鸫
(斑點雞)
bān-diǎn dōng
'stripe-dotted thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
개똥지빠귀
gaettong-jippagwi
'gaettong thrush'
Turdus ruficollis
link to photo
Red-throated thrush
Dark-throated thrush
Red-necked thrush
Black-throated thrush

Grive à gorge rousse
Rotkehldrossel
Краснозобый дрозд
ノドグロツグミ
(喉黒鶇)
nodo-guro tsugumi
'black-throated thrush'
  赤颈鸫
(赤頸鶇)
chì-jǐng dōng
'red-collared thrush'
(赤颈鸫)
赤頸鶇
chì-jǐng dōng
'red-collared thrush'
红脖鸫
(紅脖雞)
hóng-bó dōng
'red-throated thrush' (early ornithological) (35)
붉은목지빠귀
bulgeun-mok-jippagwi
'red-throated thrush'

The term 畫眉鳥 gabi-chō 'painted-eyebrow-bird' is from Chinese 畫眉 huà-méi 'painted-eyebrow', which primarily refers to the Hwamei or Melodious Laughing-thrush (Leiothrichidae). It has been extended in ornithological Japanese to many of the laughing-thrushes (Garrulax and related genera) and occasionally other families.

The species is a relatively rare winter visitor to Japan. The name is apparently due to the capture of a specimen on Hachijo-jima, the southernmost of the Izu Islands.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

香港及華南鳥類(第六版)(翻譯成中文及重新修訂) 尹璉、費嘉倫、林超英 香港性徵特區政府新聞處政府印務局 1994年
Birds of Hong Kong and South China (6th edition, translated into Chinese and newly revised) by Clive Viney, Karen Phillipps, Lin Chaoying, Hong Kong Govt. Press 1994

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

Chinese Birds (A Tentative List of Chinese Birds) 中國鳥類(中國鳥類目錄試編) N. Gist Gee, Lacy I. Moffett, G. D. Wilder (祁天錫, 慕維德, 萬卓志), Peiping, 1927 (reprinted 1948)

中国观鸟年报-中国鸟类名录 1.1 (The CBR Checklist of Birds of China v1.1)中国观鸟年报 (China Bird Review), 2010 ()